Table of Contents
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In March, 2010, President Obama laid out his ideas for revamping the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), commonly known as No Child Left Behind. The abbreviation, NCLB, is often pronounced “nickel-bee.”
At that time, President Obama released a “Blueprint for Reform” (pdf) that outlined his priorities for the law’s reauthorization. The law was written with the cooperation of Democrats and Republicans in 2001, and signed into law in early 2002 by then-President George W. Bush.
He reintroduced ideas for funding education to “Win the Future” in his January, 2011 State of the Union speech, emphasizing budget priorities that Congress will consider for fiscal year 2010-2011.
In March, 2011, President Obama gave new remarks indicating that he wants to see bipartisan cooperation on revisions to the law and its reauthorization by August, 2011.
How to Use This Site
You’ll see this very long law is divided into its component ten sections, or Title I through Title X. You can jump from Title to Title by clicking on the “Legislative focus group and workshop” in the banner, which returns you to the page that lists all the sections.
Click the apple and eraser to go to the home page of K12NewsNetwork.com for more topical education news.
Within each section, you can add your comments or read those left by others. This is a great opportunity to identify those areas you want your legislator to focus on, and gather feedback from other grassroots parents, educators, and students who want to support and improve public education in America. Please do contact your elected representative and make your views known.
K12NewsNetwork.com also has a legislative agenda where we list bills we support or oppose on POPVOX. We connect you to lawmakers so you can shape the laws that affect your life, and urge you to make use of our page or to contact the district or DC offices of your representative by phone, email, fax, or in a constituent visit to the office.
An Overview of No Child Left Behind
The preamble to this law’s called “Beginning.” It gives you an overview of what the various subsections of the law are called, and functions as an approximate table of contents.
- Title I is the longest, toughest slog. It contains important information on parent involvement in public education, programs on the development of reading skills, the education of migratory children, provisions for at-risk kids from low-income backgrounds, and advanced placement testing. Mixed in are a lot of rules regarding grant applications by local and state education agencies which aren’t really relevant to individuals.
- Title II covers funding used to train teachers and principals. It covers specific programs, like Troops-to-Teachers that help veterans get accreditation for civilian teaching jobs, or the National Writing Project or STEM (science, technology, engineering, or math) education, or teachers who use technology to help them teach.
- Title III addresses Limited English Learners who want to get up to speed in English as well as native speakers of English who seek instruction in global languages.
- Title IV addresses non-curricular parts of school culture that nevertheless are important part of the school day. These parts of the law address safety issues, from student health and freedom from drug or alcohol abuse, to gun-free and smoke-free zones.
- Title V emphasizes parental choice among types of schools, and covers charter schools, which are hybrid public- and private-funded schools that operate under different rules than existing public schools. Also covered here: gifted and talented education, magnet schools, women’s education equity, and physical education. It’s a bit of a catch-all category.
- Title VI talks about flexibility and accountability–again, aimed more at state and local educational agencies that receive federal money. There is one section on calculation of Adequate Yearly Progress, i.e., standardized testing, which is worth looking at, as is the section on Rural Schools.
- Title VII addresses the education of children who are Native Hawaiian, Native Alaskan, or belong to an American Indian nation. Native people have a different relationship to the federal government that takes into account that recognized tribes have treaties and other kinds of historically-based agreements with the federal government.
- Title VIII covers federal payments to a very small number of schools which sound like a one-time peculiarity of funding issues relating to those schools. More broadly, this part of the law allows for federal emergency grants to schools to fix school facilities under certain conditions (if no other way of funding it, such as a bond measure, is possible).
- Title IX gives attention to the federal government’s limited oversight into private schools. This part also addresses rules governing school prayer, equal access to school facilities (such as in school athletic programs where inequality between boys’ and girls’ athletic teams is often an issue), and armed forces recruiting.
- Title X is again a catch-all area that contains amendments and repeals of sections of prior law. Here you’ll find tweaks to education laws pertaining to homeless children, American Indian children (as it intersects with the Bureau of Indian Affairs), and laws having to do with teacher training.
The following provisions of law are repealed: (1) Part G of title XV of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992 (20 U.S.C. 1070a-11 note), relating to the Advanced Placement fee payment program. (2) Part B of title VIII of the Higher Education Amendments of 1998 (20 U.S.C. 1070a-11 note), relating to the Advanced Placement incentive program. (3) Part F of the General Education Provisions Act (20 U.S.C. 1235 et seq.), relating to Ready to Learn Television. (4) The following provisions of the Goal [...]
The table of contents in section 1(b) of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act (20 U.S.C. 5801 note) is amended by striking the items relating to the following provisions: (1) Parts A and C of title II (including the items relating to sections within those parts). (2) Sections 231, 232, 234, and 235. (3) Titles III through VI (including the items relating to sections within those titles). -###-
(a) IN GENERAL- Part A of title XIII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 8621 et seq.) is transferred to and redesignated as part K of the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994. (b) SECTIONS- Sections 13101 through 13105 of such part are redesignated as sections 1001 through 1005, respectively. (c) DEFINED TERMS- Part K of the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994 (as transferred and rede [...]
In this part, the definitions of terms defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 shall apply.
(a) IN GENERAL- Part B of title XIII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 8651 et seq.) is transferred to and redesignated as part L of the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994. (b) SECTIONS- Sections 13201 and 13102 of such part are redesignated as sections 1011 and 1012, respectively. (c) DEFINED TERMS- Part L of the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994 (as transferred and redesignated [...]
In this part, the definitions of terms defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 shall apply.'.
(a) IN GENERAL- Part C of title XIII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 8671 et seq.) is transferred to and redesignated as part M of the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994. (b) SECTIONS- Sections 13301 through 13108 of such part are redesignated as sections 1021 through 1028, respectively. (c) DEFINED TERMS- Part M of the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994 (as transferred and rede [...]
In this part, the definitions of terms defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 shall apply.'.
(a) IN GENERAL- Part D of title XIII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 8701) is transferred to and redesignated as part N of the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994. (b) SECTIONS- Section 13401 of such part is redesignated as section 1031. (c) DEFINED TERMS- Part N of the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994 (as transferred and redesignated by this section) is amended by adding at th [...]
In this part, the definitions of terms defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 shall apply.'
(a) PARTS K THROUGH M- Parts K through M of the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994 (as transferred and redesignated by sections 1021 through 1024 of this Act) are amended as follows: (1) Insert of such Act' in — (A) section 1002(a)(1)(A), after title I'; and (B) section 1002(a)(1)(B), after section 1114'. (2) Insert of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (as such Act was in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the No Child [...]
This part may be cited as the 'McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Assistance Improvements Act of 2001'.
Subtitle B of title VII of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11431 et seq.) is amended to read as follows:
The following is the policy of the Congress: (1) Each State educational agency shall ensure that each child of a homeless individual and each homeless youth has equal access to the same free, appropriate public education, including a public preschool education, as provided to other children and youths. (2) In any State that has a compulsory residency requirement as a component of the State's compulsory school attendance laws or other laws, regulations, practices, or policies that may act as a ba [...]
(a) GENERAL AUTHORITY- The Secretary is authorized to make grants to States in accordance with the provisions of this section to enable such States to carry out the activities described in subsections (d) through (g). (b) APPLICATION- No State may receive a grant under this section unless the State educational agency submits an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing or accompanied by such information as the Secretary may reasonably require. (c) ALLOCATION AND R [...]
(a) GENERAL AUTHORITY- (1) IN GENERAL- The State educational agency shall, in accordance with section 722(e), and from amounts made available to such agency under section 726, make subgrants to local educational agencies for the purpose of facilitating the enrollment, attendance, and success in school of homeless children and youths. (2) SERVICES- (A) IN GENERAL- Services under paragraph (1) — (i) may be provided through programs on school grounds or at other facilities; (ii) shall, to the max [...]
(a) REVIEW OF STATE PLANS- In reviewing the State plan submitted by a State educational agency under section 722(g), the Secretary shall use a peer review process and shall evaluate whether State laws, policies, and practices described in such plan adequately address the problems of homeless children and youths relating to access to education and placement as described in such plan. (b) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE- The Secretary shall provide support and technical assistance to a State educational agen [...]
For purposes of this subtitle: (1) The terms enroll' and enrollment' include attending classes and participating fully in school activities. (2) The term homeless children and youths' — (A) means individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence (within the meaning of section 103(a)(1)); and (B) includes — (i) children and youths who are sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason; are living in motels, hotels, tra [...]
For the purpose of carrying out this subtitle, there are authorized to be appropriated $70,000,000 for fiscal year 2002 and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2003 through 2007.
The table of contents of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11301 note) is amended so that the items relating to subtitle B of title VII read as follows: -###-
Sec. 721. Statement of policy. Sec. 722. Grants for State and local activities for the education of homeless children and youths. Sec. 723. Local educational agency subgrants for the education of homeless children and youths. Sec. 724. Secretarial responsibilities. Sec. 725. Definitions. Sec. 726. Authorization of appropriations. (a) IN GENERAL- Section 1 of Public Law 106-400 (42 U.S.C. 11301) is amended by striking Section 1 of' and inserting Section 101 of'. (b) EFFECTIVE DATE- The amendment [...]
This part may be cited as the 'Native American Education Improvement Act of 2001'.
Part B of title XI of the Education Amendments of 1978 (25 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.) is amended to read as follows: Part B - Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs
Congress declares that the Federal Government has the sole responsibility for the operation and financial support of the Bureau of Indian Affairs funded school system that it has established on or near Indian reservations and Indian trust lands throughout the Nation for Indian children. It is the policy of the United States to fulfill the Federal Government's unique and continuing trust relationship with and responsibility to the Indian people for the education of Indian children and for the ope [...]
(a) PURPOSE; DECLARATIONS OF PURPOSE- (1) PURPOSE- The purpose of the accreditation required under this section shall be to ensure that Indian students being served by a school funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs are provided with educational opportunities that equal or exceed those for all other students in the United States. (2) DECLARATIONS OF PURPOSE- Local school boards for schools operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, in cooperation and consultation with the appropriate tribal gover [...]
(a) REVISION OF STANDARDS- (1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Education, Indian organizations and tribes, and Bureau-funded schools, shall revise the national standards for home-living (dormitory) situations to include such factors as heating, lighting, cooling, adult-child ratios, needs for counselors (including special needs related to off-reservation home-living (dormitory) situations), therapeutic programs, space, and privacy. (2) IMPLEMENTATION- Such standa [...]
(a) PART 32 OF TITLE 25, CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS- The provisions of part 32 of title 25, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on January 1, 1987, are incorporated into this Act and shall be treated as though such provisions are set forth in this subsection. Such provisions may be altered only by means of an Act of Congress. To the extent that such provisions of part 32 do not conform with this Act or any statutory provision of law enacted before November 1, 1978, the provisions of this [...]
(a) ESTABLISHMENT BY SECRETARY- The Secretary shall establish, by regulation, separate geographical attendance areas for each Bureau-funded school. (b) ESTABLISHMENT BY TRIBAL BODY- In any case where there is more than one Bureau-funded school located on an Indian reservation, at the direction of the tribal governing body, the relevant school boards of the Bureau-funded schools on the reservation may, by mutual consent, establish the relevant attendance areas for such schools, subject to the app [...]
(a) NATIONAL SURVEY OF FACILITIES CONDITIONS- (1) IN GENERAL- Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of the Native American Education Improvement Act of 2001, the General Accounting Office shall compile, collect, and secure the data that are needed to prepare a national survey of the physical conditions of all Bureau-funded school facilities. (2) DATA AND METHODOLOGIES- In preparing the national survey required under paragraph (1), the General Accounting Office shall use the follow [...]
(a) FORMULATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF POLICY AND PROCEDURE; SUPERVISION OF PROGRAMS AND EXPENDITURES- The Secretary shall vest in the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs all functions with respect to formulation and establishment of policy and procedure and supervision of programs and expenditures of Federal funds for the purpose of Indian education administered by the Bureau. The Assistant Secretary shall carry out such functions through the Director of the Office of Indian Education Programs [...]
(a) FACTORS CONSIDERED; REVISION TO REFLECT STANDARDS- (1) FORMULA- The Secretary shall establish, by regulation adopted in accordance with section 1137, a formula for determining the minimum annual amount of funds necessary to sustain each Bureau-funded school. In establishing such formula, the Secretary shall consider — (A) the number of eligible Indian students served and total student population of the school; (B) special cost factors, such as — (i) the isolation of the school; (ii) the [...]
(a) DEFINITIONS- In this section: (1) ADMINISTRATIVE COST- (A) IN GENERAL- The term administrative cost' means the cost of necessary administrative functions which — (i) the tribe or tribal organization incurs as a result of operating a tribal elementary or secondary educational program; (ii) are not customarily paid by comparable Bureau-operated programs out of direct program funds; and (iii) are either — (I) normally provided for comparable Bureau programs by Federal officials using resour [...]
(a) ESTABLISHMENT- Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Native American Education Improvement Act of 2001, the Secretary shall establish within the Office of Indian Education Programs a Division of Budget Analysis (hereafter in this section referred to as the Division'). Such Division shall be under the direct supervision and control of the Director of the Office. (b) FUNCTIONS- In consultation with the tribal governing bodies and tribal school boards, the Director of the Off [...]
(a) ESTABLISHMENT OF SYSTEM AND FORWARD FUNDING- (1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall establish, by regulation adopted in accordance with section 1136, a system for the direct funding and support of all Bureau-funded schools. Such system shall allot funds in accordance with section 1127. All amounts appropriated for distribution in accordance with this section shall be made available in accordance with paragraph (2). (2) TIMING FOR USE OF FUNDS- (A) AVAILABILITY- For the purposes of affording ade [...]
(a) FACILITATION OF INDIAN CONTROL- It shall be the policy of the United States acting through the Secretary, in carrying out the functions of the Bureau, to facilitate Indian control of Indian affairs in all matters relating to education. (b) CONSULTATION WITH TRIBES- (1) IN GENERAL- All actions under this Act shall be done with active consultation with tribes. The United States acting through the Secretary and tribes shall work in a government-to-government relationship to ensure quality educa [...]
(a) IN GENERAL- Chapter 51, subchapter III of chapter 53, and chapter 63 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification, pay and leave, respectively, and the sections of such title relating to the appointment, promotion, hours of work, and removal of civil service employees, shall not apply to educators or to education positions (as defined in subsection (p)). (b) REGULATIONS- Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of the Native American Education Improvement Act of 2001, [...]
(a) IN GENERAL- Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of the Native American Education Improvement Act of 2001, the Secretary shall update the computerized management information system within the Office. The information to be updated shall include information regarding — (1) student enrollment; (2) curricula; (3) staffing; (4) facilities; (5) community demographics; (6) student assessment information; (7) information on the administrative and program costs attributable to each [...]
The Secretary shall institute a policy for the recruitment of qualified Indian educators and a detailed plan to promote employees from within the Bureau. Such plan shall include opportunities for acquiring work experience prior to actual work assignment.
(a) ANNUAL REPORTS- The Secretary shall submit to each appropriate committee of Congress, all Bureau-funded schools, and the tribal governing bodies of such schools, a detailed annual report on the state of education within the Bureau, and any problems encountered in Indian education during the period covered by the report, that includes — (1) suggestions for the improvement of the Bureau educational system and for increasing tribal or local Indian control of such system; and (2) information o [...]
The Secretary shall prescribe such rules and regulations as are necessary to ensure the constitutional and civil rights of Indian students attending Bureau-funded schools, including such students' rights to — (1) privacy under the laws of the United States; (2) freedom of religion and expression; and (3) due process in connection with disciplinary actions, suspensions, and expulsions.
(a) PROMULGATION- (1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary may promulgate only such regulations — (A) as are necessary to ensure compliance with the specific provisions of this part; and (B) as the Secretary is authorized to promulgate pursuant to section 5211 of the Tribally Controlled Schools Act of 1988 (25 U.S.C. 2510). (2) PUBLICATION- In promulgating the regulations, the Secretary shall — (A) publish proposed regulations in the Federal Register; and (B) provide a period of not less than 120 days [...]
(a) REGIONAL MEETINGS- Prior to publishing any proposed regulations under subsection (b)(1), and prior to establishing the negotiated rulemaking committee under subsection (b)(3), the Secretary shall convene regional meetings to consult with personnel of the Office of Indian Education Programs, educators at Bureau schools, and tribal officials, parents, teachers, administrators, and school board members of tribes served by Bureau-funded schools to provide guidance to the Secretary on the content [...]
(a) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall provide grants to tribes, tribal organizations, and consortia of tribes and tribal organizations to fund early childhood development programs that are operated by such tribes, organizations, or consortia. (b) AMOUNT OF GRANTS- (1) IN GENERAL- The total amount of the grants provided under subsection (a) with respect to each tribe, tribal organization, or consortium of tribes or tribal organizations for each fiscal year shall be equal to the amount which bears t [...]
(a) IN GENERAL- Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary shall make grants and provide technical assistance to tribes for the development and operation of tribal departments or divisions of education for the purpose of planning and coordinating all educational programs of the tribe. (b) APPLICATIONS- For a tribe to be eligible to receive a grant under this section, the governing body of the tribe shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and c [...]
For the purposes of this part, unless otherwise specified: (1) AGENCY SCHOOL BOARD- The term agency school board' means a body — (A) the members of which are appointed by all of the school boards of the schools located within an agency, including schools operated under contract or grant; and (B) the number of such members is determined by the Secretary, in consultation with the affected tribes; except that, in agencies serving a single school, the school board of such school shall fulfill thes [...]
The Tribally Controlled Schools Act of 1988 (25 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.) is amended by striking sections 5202 through 5212 and inserting the following new sections:
(a) RECOGNITION- Congress recognizes that the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, which was a product of the legitimate aspirations and a recognition of the inherent authority of Indian nations, was and is a crucial positive step toward tribal and community control and that the United States has an obligation to assure maximum Indian participation in the direction of educational services so as to render the persons administering such services and the services themselves more [...]
(a) IN GENERAL- (1) ELIGIBILITY- The Secretary shall provide grants to Indian tribes, and tribal organizations that — (A) operate contract schools under title XI of the Education Amendments of 1978 and notify the Secretary of their election to operate the schools with assistance under this part rather than continuing the schools as contract schools; (B) operate other tribally controlled schools eligible for assistance under this part and submit applications (which are approved by their tribal [...]
(a) IN GENERAL- The grant provided under this part to an Indian tribe or tribal organization for any fiscal year shall consist of — (1) the total amount of funds allocated for such fiscal year under sections 1127 and 1128 of the Education Amendments of 1978 with respect to the tribally controlled schools eligible for assistance under this part which are operated by such Indian tribe or tribal organization, including, but not limited to, funds provided under such sections, or under any other pr [...]
(a) RULES- (1) IN GENERAL- A tribally controlled school is eligible for assistance under this part if the school — (A) on April 28, 1988, was a contract school under title XI of the Education Amendments of 1978 and the tribe or tribal organization operating the school submits to the Secretary a written notice of election to receive a grant under this part; (B) was a Bureau-operated school under title XI of the Education Amendments of 1978 and has met the requirements of subsection (b); (C) is [...]
(a) IN GENERAL- If the Secretary determines that a tribally controlled school is eligible for assistance under this part, the eligibility determination shall remain in effect until the determination is revoked by the Secretary, and the requirements of subsection (b) or (c) of section 5205, if applicable, shall be considered to have been met with respect to such school until the eligibility determination is revoked by the Secretary. (b) ANNUAL REPORTS- (1) IN GENERAL- Each recipient of a grant pr [...]
(a) PAYMENTS- (1) IN GENERAL- Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the Secretary shall make payments to grantees under this part in two payments, of which — (A) the first payment shall be made not later than July 1 of each year in an amount equal to 80 percent of the amount which the grantee was entitled to receive during the preceding academic year; and (B) the second payment, consisting of the remainder to which the grantee is entitled for the academic year, shall be made not lat [...]
(a) CERTAIN PROVISIONS TO APPLY TO GRANTS- The following provisions of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (and any subsequent revisions thereto or renumbering thereof), shall apply to grants provided under this part: (1) Section 5(f) (relating to single agency audit). (2) Section 6 (relating to criminal activities; penalties). (3) Section 7 (relating to wage and labor standards). (4) Section 104 (relating to retention of Federal employee coverage). (5) Section 105(f) (rel [...]
Applications for grants under this part, and all application modifications, shall be reviewed and approved by personnel under the direction and control of the Director of the Office of Indian Education Programs. Required reports shall be submitted to education personnel under the direction and control of the Director of such Office.
The Secretary is authorized to issue regulations relating to the discharge of duties specifically assigned to the Secretary in this part. For all other matters relating to the details of planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating grants under this part, the Secretary shall not issue regulations.
(a) IN GENERAL- (1) ESTABLISHMENT- Each school receiving a grant under this part may establish, at a federally insured financial institution, a trust fund for the purposes of this section. (2) DEPOSITS AND USE- The school may provide — (A) for deposit into the trust fund, only funds from non-Federal sources, except that the interest on funds received from grants provided under this part may be used for that purpose; (B) for deposit into the trust fund, any earnings on funds deposited in the fu [...]
In this part: (1) BUREAU- The term 'Bureau' means the Bureau of Indian Affairs of the Department of the Interior. (2) ELIGIBLE INDIAN STUDENT- The term 'eligible Indian student' has the meaning given such term in section 1127(f) of the Education Amendments of 1978. (3) INDIAN- The term Indian' means a member of an Indian tribe, and includes individuals who are eligible for membership in a tribe, and the child or grandchild of such an individual. (4) INDIAN TRIBE- The term 'Indian tribe' means an [...]
(a) IN GENERAL- Notwithstanding the Tribally Controlled Schools Act of 1988 (25 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.), or the regulations promulgated under such Act, the Ojibwa Indian School located in Belcourt, North Dakota, may use amounts received under such Act to enter into, and make payments under, a lease described in subsection (b). (b) LEASE- A lease described in this subsection is a lease that — (1) is entered into by the Ojibwa Indian School for the use of facilities owned by St. Ann's Catholic Chur [...]
Section 5404(a) of the Augustus F. Hawkins-Robert T. Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (25 U.S.C. 13d-2(a)) is amended — (1) by striking the matter preceding paragraph (1) and inserting the following: (a) IN GENERAL- The Secretary of the Interior shall not disqualify from continued receipt of general assistance payments from the Bureau of Indian Affairs an otherwise eligible Indian for whom the Bureau is making or may make general assistance payments (or e [...]
SEC. 1051. PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO USE TECHNOLOGY. Title II of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1021 et seq.) is amended — (1) by striking the title heading and inserting the following: Title II - Teacher Quality Enhancement -###-